What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? - Enappy.com

Let's learn about ADHD

Many people don’t know what ADHD is, and they have no idea that it is not a disorder of the 21st or even the 20th century. A symptom complex was already mentioned back in the 18th century, which fits the description of today’s ADHD.

ADHD is not a disease but rather a condition, an abnormality of the brain, and a psychiatric disorder. It is also called hyperkinetic disorder and it affects up to 10% of schoolchildren, and more common in boys.

Although the exact causes are unknown, they may include genetics, birth trauma, brain immaturity, family, societal, and environmental variables, as well as excessive stress levels.
According to statistics, 70–80% of ADHD cases are thought to have hereditary reasons, whereas 20–30% are linked to environmental factors.

However, given the rapid ‘spread’ of ADHD, experts have concluded that environmental influences also play a vital role in its development, as genetics do not change this rapidly. Therefore, we can say that today’s lifestyle significantly impacts the emergence of these disorders.

What is ADHD?

An area of the brain organises tasks, manages emotions, and motivates the person. We call it the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for executive functions. The simplest explanation is that in children and adults with ADHD, the operation of this area, which is called the executive function, is always “late” and works at its own pace. So this means that children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD can organise and regulate emotions just like the rest of us, but not as quickly as they would like. The brain processes things more slowly, but the thoughts are fast.

Impaired executive function can show up in working memory, planning, organisation, shifting, and behavioural inhibition. However, for people with ADHD, it is not set in which areas the impairment is present. In general, not all areas are affected, and some individuals may not have any problems in the executive domain at all. Consequently, we distinguish several types of ADHD:
What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

1. ADHD, the hyperactive-impulsive type

2. ADHD, attention deficit type

3. ADHD, combined type


1. Hyperactive-impulsive type:
This is the most common type of ADHD in children. They interrupt others while speaking, shout out answers to questions asked in groups, and have difficulty with self-control.

2. Attention deficit type:
These people often have trouble performing a task and find it difficult to follow instructions. They have trouble concentrating, and as a result, they often make mistakes. They struggle to keep themselves organised, and they frequently forget things so they lose items despite their best efforts.

3. Combined type
These people are very smart, creative, and quick. They are often daydreamers, have trouble learning at school, and are forgetful. They share the characteristics of the two types listed above.

In summary, individuals with ADHD are characterised by persistent motor restlessness, behavioural and learning difficulties, and a refusal to follow the rules, which affect their performance. Regarding the symptoms, it is important to note that they are present in most situations, such as at home, school, or kindergarten.


In most cases, ADHD is diagnosed only at the age when children enter school, as the symptoms mentioned above make it extremely difficult for the kid to integrate and perform there.

However, the question is when and which specialist the parent should turn to, especially since the symptoms mentioned above can occur in many children, and there may be other reasons behind them.

If excessive activity and attention disturbance interfere with the child’s social relationships and studies, it is important to seek medical help. Several professionals can be involved in the diagnosis and treatment: special education teachers, child psychiatrists, and psychologists.
We should contact the paediatrician first regarding ADHD in a child, who will refer the child to further examination.

What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

Can it be treated?

Two therapies have proven effective when treating ADHD: drug and behavioural therapy. They are normally applied from the age of six, but both can be started earlier, especially in severe cases, after individual assessment and recommendation of the practitioner.

In contrast to these two options, there are now interventions and therapies that can be used from the very beginning and can be effective in reducing ADHD symptoms. These include:

· the Dévény method
· basic therapy
· TSMT therapy
· Ayres Sensory Integration Therapy
· other sensorimotor therapies

In addition, there is growing evidence that the continuous use of the right doses of vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, and magnesium is also effective in reducing the symptoms.

Alongside the treatment, the person must get as much outdoor exercise as possible since the increase in dopamine levels improve the symptoms.


The treatment of children and adults with ADHD is essential because, without it, they may develop self-esteem problems and a lack of motivation, which can lead to learning difficulties and, later, issues with finding a job. This turn of events also increases the possibility of developing other psychiatric illnesses (depression, personality disorders, etc.).

Advice for parents

Parents of children with ADHD must establish clear boundaries, be consistent and patient, and create a daily schedule. Try to find and reinforce activities in which the child can be most fulfilled and be themselves.
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